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经济体制思想及其政体学说——开创“限制权力”政治路线思想传统 之(2) 注释

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【1】亚里士多德论说政治哲学的题旨,指出分析财产制度是“自然起点”。“We will begin with the natural beginning of the subject. …”又引述哲人政要的看法说,财产制度是“要点中的要点”。“In the opinion of some, the regulation of property is the chief point of all, …”见亚里士多德:《政治学》第二卷第一章、第七章。
【2】“the ruling class should be the owners of property, for they are citizens, and the citizens of a state should be in good circumstances. ”“建立邦国是为着公民;公民应有好的生活境况,而好的生活系于各人自有财产。”见《政治学》第七卷第九章。
【3】“Other constitutions have been proposed; some by private persons, others by philosophers and statesmen, which all come nearer to established or existing ones than either of Plato’s. No one else has introduced such novelties as the community of women and children, …”古希腊哲人政要关于经济体制和社会制度的思想,“……大多都是基于既有的或现行的(财产权)体制。柏拉图的(高阶及低阶理想国)是另类学说,也唯独他提出共妻/共子女之新奇的异想。……”参见《政治学》第二卷第七章。
【4】“Let us remember that we should not disregard the experience of ages; in the multitude of years these things, if they were good, would certainly not have been unknown; for almost everything has been found out, although sometimes they are not put together; in other cases men do not use the knowledge which they have. ”见《政治学》第二卷第五章。
【5】“If they do not share equally enjoyments and toils, those who labor much and get little will necessarily complain of those who labor little and receive or consume much. ” 见《政治学》第二卷第五章。
【6】“These evils, however, are due to a very different cause—the wickedness of human nature. Indeed, we see that there is much more quarrelling among those who have all things in common, though there are not many of them when compared with the vast numbers who have private property. ”见《政治学》第二卷第五章。
【7】亚里士多德与平均主义公平观划清思想界线。他认为社会的利益公平不是均贫富,而是建构公益社会,达到“公民人人无匮乏”“I do not think that property ought to be common, as some maintain, but only that by friendly consent there should be a common use of it; and that no citizen should be in want of subsistence. ”参见《政治学》第七卷第十章。
【8】“…the present arrangement, if improved as it might be by good customs and laws, would be far better, and would have the advantages of both systems. Property should be in a certain sense common, but, as a general rule, private; …”见《政治学》第二卷第五章。
【9】《政治学》一书对抓阄任官、轮替制之类邦国的平权政制实践作了大量深入探究。318 “…the election of officers by all out of all; and that all should rule over each, and each in his turn over all; that the appointment to all offices, or to all but those which require experience and skill, should be made by lot; …”见《政治学》第六卷第二章。又:219“There are other constitutions in which the boards of magistrates meet and deliberate, but come into office by turns, and are elected out of the tribes and the very smallest divisions of the state, until every one has obtained office in his turn. ”见《政治学》第四卷第十四章。
【10】“… that a man should live as he likes. This, they say, is the privilege of a freeman, since, on the other hand, not to live as a man likes is the mark of a slave. This is the second characteristic of democracy, whence has arisen the claim of men to be ruled by none, if possible, or, if this is impossible, to rule and be ruled in turns; and so it contributes to the freedom based upon equality. . ”见《政治学》第六卷第二章。
【11】“But there is also a fifth, which retains the generic name of polity or constitutional government; this is not common, and therefore has not been noticed by writers who attempt to enumerate the different kinds of government; like Plato,…”“第5种政体,叫做‘正名’政治体、又叫宪政体制。诚然多数政治论著不曾说及宪政。如柏拉图力图全面深入探讨政体,但就是不见他论及宪政。”参见《政治学》第四卷第七章。
【12】“The law of which I speak is a sort of convention—the law by which whatever is taken in war is supposed to belong to the victors. But this right many jurists impeach, as they would an orator who brought forward an unconstitutional measure: they detest the notion that, because one man has the power of doing violence and is superior in brute strength, another shall be his slave and subject.”“这里说的‘法’(奴隶制之法)由来于政治史实的成见:打胜仗夺得的一切,皆是制胜者之理所当然应得。这一衍伸自战争恐暴的权力,许多学者从法理上提出质疑:拜倒于此权力的人,乃是为‘不成其为制度的制度’作辩护。兽类暴力式力量强大者对力量弱小者的恐暴——建立在此基础上的奴役统治,竟然成了人类社会的法则!”参见《政治学》第一卷第六章。
【13】“…the poor and the rich quarrel with one another, and whichever side gets the better, instead of establishing a just or popular government, regards political supremacy as the prize of victory, …”“穷人富人相争,无论哪一方得胜,都不是为着建立公义的或全民的政权,而以取得政治的主宰地位(及其经济社会利益)作为制胜的战利品。”参见《政治学》第四卷第十一章。
【14】亚里士多德剖析拜权力主义,揭示其本质是扩张恐暴权势服务于权力者的私利。“…the man who is able to rule, instead of giving up anything to his neighbor, ought rather to take away his power.”参见《政治学》第七卷第三章。
【15】“But, although it may be difficult in theory to know what is just and equal, the practical difficulty of inducing those to forbear who can, if they like, encroach, is far greater, for the weaker are always asking for equality and justice, but the stronger care for none of these things. ”参见《政治学》第六卷第三章。
【16】“In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration. … For who is it that in the management even of his domestic affairs would be thus confined? At Ragusa the chief magistrate of the republic is changed every month, the other officers every week, and the governor of the castle every day.”参见孟德斯鸠:《论法的精神》第一卷第二章第三节。
【17】孟德斯鸠这里所说腊古札,位于今意大利,历史上长期独立自治。
【18】“Though the ecclesiastic power be so dangerous in a republic, yet it is extremely proper in a monarchy, especially of the absolute kind. …A barrier ever useful when there is no other: for since a despotic government is productive of the most dreadful calamities to human nature, the very evil that restrains it is beneficial to the subject.”参见《论法的精神》第一卷第二章第四节。
【19】If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself. 见麦迪逊:《联邦党人文集》No. 51
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